One of the priority activities of SDB MRAT FEB RAS (Special Design Bureau Of Marine Research Automation Tools) is the development and production of autonomous robotics and complexes, as well as the formation of the principles for building on their basis an automated information system for the ecological monitoring of marine areas.
The scientific potential and production and technological capabilities of the enterprise accumulated over the previous decades made it possible to create and bring to the experimental and industrial samples a functionally completed unified range of technical means that can be integrated into an automated monitoring system of the environment as constituent elements.
The main element of the system are multifunctional measuring platforms that can conduct continuous monitoring of temperature, salinity, oxygen content, speed and direction of currents, concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons, and the radioactive background spectrum, as well as a number of other characteristics of the medium. In the created samples of such platforms, it is possible to exchange information both between the platforms themselves and with the remote consumer, for which the hydroacoustic and radio frequency channels of information transmission or their combination are used. Configuration of information channels can be performed depending on the problem being solved both in the acquisition of measuring platforms and in the process of their direct application.
The platforms are developed in three basic versions. The first option is an autonomous bottom measuring station. Such stations can be installed on the seabed and monitor the environmental parameters at the installation point. For transmission of data in this version of the platform construction, a hydroacoustic information transfer channel is provided.
The second version of the platform is designed as stationary, but with the ability to cycle through the depth. In this case, it is possible to obtain data on the environment throughout the thickness of the hydrological section. As information channels can be used as a radio channel (with the surfacing of the measuring module on the surface) and hydroacoustic one while the measuring module is in the underwater position.
The third version of the platform is built on the basis of a small remote-controlled ship. One of its main functions, besides conducting measurements of the parameters of the medium in the surface layer and the atmosphere, and also conducting bathymetric and geophysical surveys, is the retransmission of information flows from stationary means of underwater monitoring through the interface between water-air media. To retransmit messages, a set of hydroacoustic and radio frequency information channels is used.
The architecture of the system, as well as its main elements, including means and systems of information transfer, passed the testing phase in real marine conditions.
Qualitatively new opportunities are achieved both through the use of advanced technologies of marine instrumentation, and through the integration of information flows from spatially separated elements of the system. The essence of the innovative approach to shaping the appearance and subsequent technical implementation of the monitoring system is to build a single information and measurement network designed to integrate multi-dimensional (space, time and types of measured parameters) data, and deliver them to the consumer. This opens the possibility of a transition from episodic and local assessments of the ecological status of marine environmental management facilities currently used to their dynamic spatial monitoring in real time.
The subsequent analysis of information involves the use of methods of coupled analysis of heterogeneous multicomponent information for forecasting the state and changes in hydrological, hydrochemical, hydrobiological parameters of the aquatic environment and forecasting biological diversity, providing information support for decision-making procedures in the field of environmental protection and environmental safety.